Monday, July 22, 2019
Circulatory System Essay His first point criticised PaleyÃ¢â¬â¢s analogy of the watch. The first part of the analogy claimed that if you found a rock while walking through a heath, you would not think anything of it. However, if you had seen a watch you would examine it and find that it had moving parts that demonstrate that the watch has a purpose, the parts work together for a purpose and they are ordered to make the watch function because if they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t, the watch wonÃ¢â¬â¢t perform its function. He concluded the first part of his analogy by saying that the watch had a maker who must have existed at some time and place. The second part of the analogy claimed that if we suppose the watch had another imaginary function, and this function was the producing of other watches, then our admiration for the watchmaker would be increased. He concluded this part of his argument by saying that anyone who finds such a watch would conclude that the design of the watch implies Ã¢â¬Ëthe presence of intelligence and mindÃ¢â¬â¢. Paley said that just like the watch being designed necessitates a designer as an explanation of its existence, all of nature requires a much greater designer. The complexity of nature is far greater than any machine human beings can make and therefore a grand designer is needed, this designer is God. Hume criticised this point by saying that the analogy is limited. For example, you could conclude from a study of the human blood circulatory system that animals had the same system. This would be a weak and mistaken analogy however to compare a humanÃ¢â¬â¢s and an animalÃ¢â¬â¢s circulato ry system to the way sap circulates in a plant. Hume maintained his criticism of PaleyÃ¢â¬â¢s analogy of the watch by an analogy of his own. This analogy said that we can conclude that a house had a builder and an architect but we cannot, however, deduce a builder or architect of the universe in the same way because there is no similarity between the two. He mentioned that if the house is faulty, what does this suggest about the designer? And so, if God did design the world, is he directly responsible for the evil within it? Paley, however, rejected this point because the issue was whether the universe exhibited signs of design. He was not concerned with questions relating to issues of quality concerning the design. PaleyÃ¢â¬â¢s response was criticised to be unsatisfactory. Hume argued that there are other possible explanations than God for apparent design in the universe. Hume claimed that one of these possible explanations might be that as well as the possibility that there is a grand designer of the universe, it is equally possible that Ã¢â¬Ëmatter may contain the spring of order originally within itself, as well as mind doesÃ¢â¬â¢ and that unless there is perfect similarity between the object of comparison and what is being compared, you cannot draw a conclusion with any certainty. Another possible explanation for apparent design in the universe might be that any effects that we observe in nature may be caused by a variety of causes. This view supports the discovery of natural selection and the DNA and its role of shaping the growth of all living organisms. Hume claimed that there might not be just one single designer for the world. For example, we may look at a great ship and think about the great design of it, but the ship may be the result of years, even generations of trial and error. The ship may be the product of many hands and not just one great designer. From this, Hume concludes that there is no evidence to suggest the Ã¢â¬Ëunity of the deityÃ¢â¬â¢. Hume suggested three more theories as explanations for the design of the universe; aptness of analogy, the epicurean thesis and the argument from effect to cause. The aptness of analogy said that a watch is not a suitable analogy for the world. For example, just because a cabbage is fitted together/designed perfectly, does not mean that it has a maker/designer. By using a machine as an analogy, you would have already determined the outcome you want; you want there to be a designer and youÃ¢â¬â¢re already assuming that something natural, i.e. the cabbage, has a designer. The epicurean thesis was explained using an example. This example spoke about particles and said that if they were freely moving around over infinite time, by chance, one of the combinations they make would just happen to represent a stable order and this stable order is what we now live in. This example represented the view that the universe might have happened by chance. The argument from effect to cause claimed that we cannot go from an effect to a greater cause than that needed to produce the cause. We cannot say whether he made the watch alone or had some little helpers. This would mean that we do not and cannot know whether he is still active or even still alive, we can only say if the universe does/doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a designer and canÃ¢â¬â¢t list its traits by saying that he is benevolent, omnipotent, omniscient and infinite as many would portray him. Overall, Hume criticises the teleological argument in a number of ways. He very explicitly criticises PaleyÃ¢â¬â¢s views on the teleological argument, using them to explain why he believes that the argument is deeply flawed.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Effects of Indoor Plants on Air Pollution Are indoor plants adapted to get rid formaldehyde, Sipin, Elly Lorreta one of the noxious wastes commonly found at home 002348-019 nowadays? 1.0 Introduction I did further research and found out that indoor air pollution phenomenon has urged the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) scientists to study the functions of plants to provide clean indoor air. NASA has become the pioneer towards this research and recently has been widened by many other associations like the Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc. endorsed by the Plants for Clean Air Council in Mitchellville, Maryland. Research done by NASA has found out that there are certain plants that have the function to purify the air in a building. They detoxify the existing toxins and pollutants which originate from the things used in daily activities nowadays; fabrics, detergents and also furniture. These pollutants can be classified into three common indoor pollutants according to the list of indoor contaminant that are currently present. There are benzene, formaldehyde and trichloroethylene. (TCE) Plants use the concept of transpiration to work onto this problem. As the vaporized chemical enters the stomatal opening on the leaves of the indoor plants, they are either broken down directly or be sent downwards; down to the root system of the plants. The presence of colonies of microbes at the root system breaks down various kinds of unhealthy compounds; in this case the indoor pollutants, and absorbs them as their source of food. As for the mechanism of transpiration to remove the pollutant, water vapour that is liberated by the leaves of the plants will mix with the air in the atmosphere. Convection of air leads to the movement of the atmospheric air that is contaminated with the vaporized chemical downwards to the base of the plants. I chose 6 types of plants to be experimented by one fixed type of pollutant; formaldehyde. It is normally used in the production of grocery bags, facial tissues, waxed paper, waxed paper and produced by tobacco products, gas cookers and open fireplaces. In the experiment, this chemical is predicted to be absorbed by each plant. Plant that absorbs the chemical the most would be the efficient plant to be included in places mentioned before. 2.0 Aim To study the effect of plants transpiration towards the acidity and mass of formaldehyde in a transparent chamber. 3.0 Planning and method development Firstly, a chamber must be set up to place plants chosen. A pot of selected plant is placed into each chamber. 6 types of plants were chosen, therefore 6 chambers must be created. To make sure that air, sunlight and water could be continuously supplied, I decided that the chamber must be transparent, and there are holes to let air enters. The material that I chose is transparent plastic so that holes can be poked, the wall of the chambers can be flipped to water the plants everyday and plants get sufficient sunlight. I selected formaldehyde as the pollutant to the plants. In each of the chamber, I included formalin of the same amount in a beaker and let it evaporate in the chamber. As formalin CH2O, is a reducing agent, therefore it has the ability to release its hydrogen. The more hydrogen ions present in it, the greater the strength of the acid. When evaporation of formalin happens continuously, there will be less in quantity of hydrogen atoms in the aqueous solution. Thus, the acidity of formaldehyde could decrease through evaporation; pH of the formalin increases. So, the pH of the formalin is ought to be checked for every interval of two days. Because concept of evaporation is used, it is for sure the volume of the formalin will reduce. The most effective method to measure this is by getting the mass decrease. I took the reading of the mass of formalin for every interval of two days. I decided to take note on the external condition of all the plants so that analysis on that can be don e to find its relativity with formalin. 4.0 Hypothesis My prediction is that indoor plants have the ability to get rid of formaldehyde, one of the noxious wastes commonly found at home nowadays by absorbing the chemicals through their microscopic openings perforated on their leaves; the stomata. As the chemical evaporates, the molecules of the chemical are absorbed by the plants by gaining entrance through the stomata. These plants transport the absorbed chemical to their root system along the xylem of the plants to be broken down by the microbes present at the roots. As formalin acts as a reducing agent, release of hydrogen could occur. Through evaporation of formalin, there will be less hydrogen atoms could remain in the aqueous solution. Thus, it is possible for the decrease in mass and increase in the pH of the formalin to occur when indoor plants are available. 5.0 Methodology 5.1 Variables a) Independent: * Types of plants chosen to be experimented There are variety types of plants chosen in order to know whether the hypothesis could be accepted. They are Boston fern (Nephrolepis exaltata Ã¢â¬Å"BostoniensisÃ¢â¬ ), Janet Craig(Dracaena deremensis), Florists mum(Chrysanthemum morifolium), Kimberly queen fern (Nephrolepis obliterata), Snake plant or mother-in-laws tongue (Sansevieria trifasciata Laurentii), Himalayan Balsam (Impatiens glandulifera) altogether. Himalayan Balsam (Impatiens glandulifera) acts as the control of the experiment to show its less in efficiency to absorb the toxin. Some plants have no ability to absorb the chosen toxin as good as in some indoor plants. b) Dependent: * The rate of absorption of formaldehyde The rate of absorption of formaldehyde is taken as the decrease in mass of formalin over time. This is documented for every interval of two days. Other than that, the acidity of formaldehyde in each chamber is also noted. This is done by using pH paper and pH meter to indicate the change in pH. The pH of the formalin in the chamber is recorded to see the pattern of change in acidity. c) Fixed: * The type of toxin chosen; formaldehyde Liquid formalin is selected to be one of the fixed variables in this experiment so that the analysis of the change in acidity can be done easily. More than one type of pollutant will promote confusion while conducting the experiment as the characteristic of one pollutant differ from one to another. Formalin is the aqueous state of the chemical formaldehyde and the concentration of the liquid formalin is 100%. I made the volume and the concentration of liquid formalin the same in every small beaker included in every transparent chamber. It is important to do so because the pH of the chemical and its mass are to be checked every 2 days throughout the duration of the experiment. The initial pH of the chemical is 3.510 while the initial volume of the chemical is 10 Ã ± 0.5 ml making its mass to be 10.19 Ã ± 0.01 g * The estimated size of the plants chosen The chosen plants are of the same size. There is no specific measurement for the plants sizes so therefore, the size is depending on the experimenters justification by fixing the number of leaves present in every plant chosen. This is due to the mechanism of the absorption of the chemical formalin happens through the microscopic opening present on the leaves; the stomata. It is therefore can be predicted that more tiny opening present on the leaves, the more effective would the rate of absorption be. I decided that the total number of leaves is approximately 15-20 leaves depending on the how broad the surface of the leaves is. * The size of the pyramidal transparent chamber The size of the pyramidal transparent chamber is to be made constant by using the same size and number of transparent plastic bags. The size of the plastic bags is 23cm x 38cm and they are cut into same shapes to fit it with the skeleton of the chamber. The base of the chamber is triangular in shape and constant with the area of Ã ½ (50cm x 50cm). 5.2 Materials MATERIALS QUANTITY JUSTIFICATION Formalin 120ml Formalin acts as the toxin in the experiment. Tap Water 5 litres This is used to water the plants everyday for 2 weeks duration. 5.3 Apparatus APPARATUS QUANTITY JUSTIFICATION Boston fern (N. exaltata) 1 pot These are the plants chosen to determine their effectiveness to absorb the formalin. Janet Craig (D. deremensis) 1 pot Florists mum (C. morifolium) 1 pot Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata) 1 pot Snake plant (S. trifasciata) 1 pot Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera) 1 pot pH paper 1 box To check the acidity of formalin every 2 days. pH meter 1 To determine the pH of the formalin every 2 days. Disposable plastic cups 24 To be the base of the pyramidal transparent chamber. Plastic and bamboo chopsticks 54 To be the poles of the pyramidal transparent chamber. Electronic balance 1 To measure the decrease in mass of the liquid formalin for every 2 days. 50ml beaker 6 To place the liquid formalin in each chamber. 50ml measuring cylinder 1 To measure the amount of formalin in each 50ml beaker. Transparent plastics for packaging (23cm x 38cm) 1 pack To become the cover of the chamber. 5.4 Methodology to prepare a chamber for the plant A chamber has to be invented to place the chosen plants, considering the needs of those plants to get sufficient sunlight, air and water. I chose transparent plastics and attach them together to create a pyramidal transparent chamber. Holes were also poked to allow air move into the chamber. I included nine chopsticks to be the poles of chamber. A pole comprised of 3 combined chopsticks. To increase its stability, I poked a hole onto the bases of three disposable plastic cups and inserted the chopsticks into the holes. 5.5 Methodology to determine the change in acidity of formaldehyde After the chamber was set up, I prepared the solution of the toxin chosen; formalin.in a 50ml beaker. 10 Ã ± 0.5 ml of the chemical in each beaker was measured using 50ml measuring cylinder. 6 transparent chambers were set up to place 6 types of plants which were the Boston fern (N. exaltata), Janet Craig (D. deremensis), Florists mum (C. morifolium), Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata), Snake plant (S. trifasciata), and Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera). All the 6 chambers contained different pots of plants and 10ml of formalin in a 50ml beaker. At intervals of 2 days, the mass of the formalin was recorded. The procedure to get the mass of formalin in each chamber was as follows; * Take the reading of the mass of 50ml beaker before filling in the formalin by using electronic balance. Repeat the steps 3 times in order to get the average reading. * Weigh the 50ml beaker containing formalin by using electronic balance. Repeat the procedure 3 times in order to get the average reading. The reading of the mass of the formalin + 50ml beaker at intervals of 2 days was recorded. The mass of the formalin was determined by subtracting the average value of the mass of formalin + 50ml beaker with the average mass of the 50ml beaker. The pH was again checked by using pH paper and also pH meter for 2 weeks. The change in colour of the pH paper and the reading of the pH meter were noted and documented. Each of the plants in the chamber was watered once a day using tap water. The amount of tap water must was 20ml per watering and watering time was at 10.30 a.m and 4.00 p.m. every day. Condition for each of the plants was observed for interval time of 2 days. All of results were recorded in a table. 5.5.1 Precaution 1. Beware while handling formalin because it is a dangerous chemical. Since a high concentration of formaldehyde will be used in the experiment, it may cause burning sensation to the eyes, nose and lungs. Thus it could result in allergic reaction because of formalin. 2. Be cautious when building the pyramidal transparent chamber especially when dealing with the bamboo sticks. Avoid any sharp splinter of the bamboo stick from piercing into the skin. 6.0 Data collection TABLE 1: THE pH of FORMALIN IN EACH TRANSPARENT CHAMBER WITH DIFFERENT PLANTS IN 14 DAYS Transparent chamber containing plants Value of Ph of formalin in each transparent chamber according to number of days 2 days 4 days 6 days 8 days 10 days 12 days 14 days Boston fern (N. exaltata Ã¢â¬Å"BostoniensisÃ¢â¬ ) 3.510 3.550 3.570 4.020 4.130 4.260 4.310 Janet Craig (D. deremensis) 3.510 3.570 3.580 4.020 4.070 4.210 4.430 Florists mum (C. morifolium) 3.510 3.570 3.590 4.120 4.200 4.320 4.620 Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterate) 3.510 3.510 3.520 4.010 4.030 4.050 4.110 Snake plant (S. trifasciata Laurentii) 3.510 3.370 3.360 4.030 4.030 4.030 4.030 Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera) 3.510 3.370 3.370 3.350 3.350 3.350 3.350 Note: The pH of formalin in each beaker was checked at the same interval to ensure that none of the formalin being absorbed more by their respective plants. The time that they were checked was at a range of 4.00 p.m. until 4.45 p.m. 10 Are indoor plants adapted to get rid formaldehyde, Sipin, Elly Lorreta one of the noxious wastes commonly found at home 002348-019 nowadays? TABLE 2: MASS OF FORMALIN + 50ml BEAKER IN EACH CHAMBER CONTAINING DIFFERENT PLANTS IN 14 DAYS Transparent chamber containing plants Mass of formalin + 50ml beaker in each transparent chamber Ã ± 0.01g 2 days 4 days 6 days 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd Boston fern (N. exaltata) 46.950 46.960 46.960 46.530 46.540 46.550 46.230 46.220 46.220 Janet Craig (D. deremensis) 46.910 46.910 46.910 46.520 46.520 46.510 46.310 46.310 46.310 Florists mum (C. morifolium) 46.940 46.940 46.950 46.610 46.600 46.610 46.350 46.340 46.350 Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata) 46.970 46.970 46.970 46.620 46.620 46.640 46.430 46.410 46.410 Snake plant (S. trifasciata) 46.920 46.910 46.910 46.620 46.630 46.610 46.420 46.410 46.430 Himalayan Balsam(I. glandulifera) 46.940 46.940 46.930 46.780 46.790 46.790 46.720 46.710 46.720 Note: The mass of the formalin was measured at intervals of 2 days and it was at a range of time from 4.00 p.m. until 4.45 p.m. 10 Are indoor plants adapted to get rid formaldehyde, Sipin, Elly Lorreta one of the noxious wastes commonly found at home 002348-019 nowadays? Transparent chamber containing plants Mass of formalin + 50ml beaker in each transparent chamber Ã ± 0.01g 8 days 10 days 12 days 14 days 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd Boston fern (N. exaltata) 46.010 46.030 46.040 45.480 45.480 45.470 45.210 45.220 45.220 44.950 44.960 44.980 Janet Craig (D. deremensis) 45.520 45.530 45.530 45.030 45.030 45.020 44.960 44.960 44.920 44.580 44.590 44.580 Florists mum (C. morifolium) 45.550 45.550 45.560 45.220 45.210 45.220 44.940 44.940 44.950 44.130 44.130 44.140 Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata) 45.500 45.510 45.510 45.320 45.350 45.350 44.980 44.980 44.990 44.220 44.230 44.230 Snake plant (S. trifasciata) 45.890 45.900 45.890 45.530 45.530 45.530 45.140 45.140 45.120 44.970 44.960 44.970 Himalayan Balsam(I. glandulifera) 46.680 46.680 46.680 46.340 46.340 46.320 46.290 46.290 47.300 46.250 46.240 46.250 10 Are indoor plants adapted to get rid formaldehyde, Sipin, Elly Lorreta one of the noxious wastes commonly found at home 002348-019 nowadays? Transparent chamber containing plants Change in colour of pH paper 2 days 4 days 6 days 8 days 10 days 12 days 14 days Boston fern (N. exaltata) Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Janet Craig (D. deremensis) Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Yellow leaves Brown Leaves Florists mum (C.morifolium) Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Wilted flowers Wilted flowers Yellow leaves Yellow leaves K. queen fern (N. obliterata) Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Yellow leaves Yellow leaves Yellow leaves Snake plant (S. trifasciata) Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves H. Balsam (I. glandulifera) Green leaves Green leaves Yellow leaves Yellow leaves Yellow leaves Brown leaves Brown leaves TABLE 3: DAILY CONDITION OF PLANTS IN THE TRANSPARENT CHAMBERS IN 14 DAYS Note: Only Florists mum (C.morifolium) in this experiment has flowers. When the edges of the leaves becoming brown or yellow, it is indicated as having brown leaves or yellow leaves. The font in italic form indicates the adverse change onto the plants. 10 Are indoor plants adapted to get rid formaldehyde, Sipin, Elly Lorreta one of the noxious wastes commonly found at home 002348-019 nowadays? TABLE 4: CHANGE IN COLOUR OF pH PAPER WHEN pH OF FORMALIN FOR A DURATION OF TWO WEEKS Transparent chamber containing plants Change in colour of pH paper 2 days 4 days 6 days 8 days 10 days 12 days 14 days Boston fern (N. exaltata ) Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Janet Craig (D. deremensis) Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Florists mum (C. morifolium) Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange K. queen fern (N. obliterata) Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Snake plant (S. trifasciata) Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange H. Balsam (I. glandulifera) Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Note: The original colour of the pH paper is light yellow in colour 10 Are indoor plants adapted to get rid formaldehyde, Sipin, Elly Lorreta one of the noxious wastes commonly found at home 002348-019 nowadays? 7.0 Data processing 7.1 pH difference of formalin I discover that there are some changes in pH of the formalin in the transparent chamber. The following table shows the total difference in the final and the initial pH of the formalin in each transparent chamber. TABLE 5: DIFFERENCE IN pH OF FORMALIN IN EACH TRANSPARENT CHAMBER Transparent chamber containing plants Final pH Initial pH Difference in pH Boston fern (N. exaltata) 4.310 3.510 0.800 Janet Craig (D. deremensis) 4.430 3.510 0.920 Florists mum (C. morifolium) 4.620 3.510 1.110 Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterate) 4.110 3.510 0.600 Snake plant (S. trifasciata) 4.030 3.510 0.520 Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera) 3.350 3.510 0.160 Note: The method to calculate the pH of formalin in chamber containing Himalayan Balsam is inverted, since the pH value decreased so that negative value can be ignored. 7.2 Data for mean mass of formalin The following table shows the average mass of formalin + 50ml beaker for 14 days TABLE 6: AVERAGE MASS OF FORMALIN + 50ml BEAKER IN EACH CHAMBER CONTAINING DIFFERENT PLANTS IN 14 DAYS Transparent chamber containing plants Average mass of formalin+50ml beaker in each chamber Ã ± 0.01g Day 2 Day 4 Day 6 Day 8 Day 10 Day 12 Day 14 Boston fern (N. exaltata) 46.960 46.540 46.220 46.030 45.480 45.220 44.960 Janet Craig (D. deremensis) 46.910 46.520 46.310 45.530 45.030 44.950 44.580 Florists mum (C. morifolium) 46.940 46.610 46.350 45.550 45.220 44.540 44.130 K. queen fern (N. obliterate) 46.970 46.630 46.420 45.510 45.340 44.980 44.240 Snake plant (S. trifasciata) 46.910 46.620 46.420 45.890 45.330 45.130 44.970 H. Balsam (I. glandulifera 46.940 46.790 46.720 46.680 46.330 46.290 44.250 Note: The average masses were obtained by totaling up the three mass values in three trials, and divide it into three. 7.3 Graph for the decreasing mass of formalin In order to get a graph of decrease in mass of formalin from day 0 to day 14, the real mass of formalin is required. Therefore, the table of mass of formalin for a duration of 14 days is made as follows. The formulation to calculate the mass of formalin in each beaker would be; Mass of formalin= [(Average mass of formalin+50ml beaker)- Average mass of 50ml beaker] TABLE 7: MASS OF FORMALIN IN EVERY 50ml BEAKER CONTAINED IN TRANSPARENT CHAMBER WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF PLANTS Transparent chamber containing plants Mass of formalin Ã ± 0.01g [(Average mass of formalin+50ml beaker) Average mass of 50ml beaker] Day 2 Day 4 Day 6 Day 8 Day 10 Day 12 Day 14 Boston fern (N. exaltata) 10.170 9.750 9.430 9.240 8.690 8.430 8.170 Janet Craig (D. deremensis) 10.120 9.730 9.520 8.740 8.240 8.160 7.790 Florists mum (C. morifolium) 10.150 9.820 9.560 8.760 8.430 8.150 7.340 K. queen fern (N. obliterate) 10.180 9.840 9.630 8.760 8.430 8.150 7.450 Snake plant (S. trifasciata) 10.120 9.830 9.630 9.100 8.540 8.340 8.180 H. Balsam (I. glandulifera 10.150 10.000 9.930 9.890 9.540 9.500 9.460 Note: The average mass of one 50ml beaker is 36.79 Ã ± 0.1g. This value was used to calculate the mass above. The bar graph of decrease in mass of the formalin against number of days for each beaker containing formalin in every transparent chamber is as follows; graph 1: decrease in mass of the formalin against number of days for each beaker containing formalin in every transparent chamber Note: The graph shows quite obvious inclination of mass of formalin in all chambers except for the H. Balsam (I. glandulifera) 7.4 Mass and percentage of formalin absorbed The initial average mass of the 10ml formalin in the 50ml beaker is 46.980 Ã ± 0.01g and the average mass of the 50ml beaker alone is 36.790 Ã ± 0.01g making the mass of the 10.000 Ã ± 0.1 ml formalin poured in to be 10.190 Ã ± 0.01g. From the data, there is a decreasing pattern of the mass of the formalin in the 50ml beaker. The percentage of decrease in mass of the 10.000 Ã ± 0.1 ml formalin in 14 days of time in respective transparent chamber of plants can be determined. Before that, the mass of formalin absorbed in all the 6 transparent chambers must be d up. Calculation is as follows; TABLE 8: MASS OF FORMALIN ABSORBED BY PLANTS IN EACH CHAMBER Name of plants in each chamber Mass of formalin absorbed [Initial mass (10.190)- Mass on the14th day] Ã ± 0.01g Boston fern (N. exaltata) 2.020 Janet Craig (D. deremensis) 2.400 Florists mum (C. morifolium) 2.850 Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterate) 2.740 Snake plant (S. trifasciata) 2.010 H. Balsam (I. glandulifera 0.730 Note: The mass of formalin absorbed by plants in each chamber is referring to the decrease in mass of formalin throughout the 12 days duration. It is possible to calculate the percentage of decrease in mass of formalin absorbed by using the formulation below. The table below shows the percentage in respective 50ml beaker of formalin in all 6 chambers; Percentage of decrease in = Mass of formalin absorbed x 100% mass of formalin Initial mass of formalin TABLE 9: PERCENTAGE DECREASE IN MASS OF FORMALIN IN THE 50ml BEAKER IN RESPECTIVE TRANSPARENT CHAMBER Transparent chamber containing plants Percentage of decrease in mass of formalin absorbed Percentage of decrease in mass of formalin (%) Boston fern (N. exaltata) 2.020/10.190 x 100 19.820 Janet Craig (D. deremensis) 2.400/10.190 x 100 23.550 Florists mum (C. morifolium) 2.850/10.190 x 100 27.970 Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterate) 2.740/10.190 x 100 26.890 Snake plant (S. trifasciata) 2.010/10.190 x 100 19.730 Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera) 0.730/10.190 x 100 7.160 Note: The comparison of decrease in mass of formalin in beaker is based on the initial mass of formalin in the beaker. The greater the percentage of decrease in masses of formalin, the better the quality of air in the chamber, the better formalin absorber would the plant be. The following diagram shows the ascending order of the quality of plant as formalin absorber. Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera) Snake plant (S. trifasciata) Boston fern (N. exaltata) Janet Craig (D. deremensis) Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterate) Florists mum (C. morifolium) 7.5 Calculation for mean, standard deviation and T-test TABLE 10 : TABLE OF MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION FOR EVERY PLANTS CHOSEN Mass Ã ± 0.01g Plants Boston fern (N. exaltata) Janet Craig (D. deremensis) Florists mum (C. morifolium) Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata) Snake plant (S. trifasciata) Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera) 1st trial 2.000 2.330 2.810 2.000 1.950 0.690 2nd trial 2.000 2.320 2.810 2.740 1.950 0.700 3rd trial 1.980 2.330 2.810 2.740 1.940 0.680 Mean 1.993 2.327 2.810 2.493 1.947 0.690 Std. Dev 0.009 0.005 0.000 0.349 0.005 0.008 Note: The mean was determined by getting the difference of mass of formalin between 14th day with the 0 day; initial mass. The formulation to calculate t-test is as follows; t-value =_____difference in mean___ difference of standard error TABLE 11: TABLE OF T-VALUE FOR THE COMPARISON OF MASS DECREASE MEAN BETWEEN BOSTON FERN (N. exaltata) AND JANET CRAIG (D. deremensis) Mass Ã ± 0.01g Plants Boston fern (N. exaltata) Janet Craig (D. deremensis) Difference between Boston fern and Janet Craig 1 trial 2.000 2.330 0.330 2 trial 2.000 2.320 0.320 3 trial 1.980 2.330 0.340 Mean 1.993 2.327 0.330 Std. Dev 0.009 0.005 0.008 Std. Error 1.151 1.343 0.191 Degree of freedom 2.000 Critical value at 5% level 4.300 t-value 1.728 Null Hypothesis: There is no significance difference for decrease in mass between Boston fern (N. exaltata) and Janet Craig (D. deremensis) | t | = 1.728 Thus, null hypothesis is rejected. The mean difference is not significant TABLE 12: TABLE OF T-VALUE FOR THE COMPARISON OF MASS DECREASE MEAN BETWEEN BOSTON FERN (N. exaltata) AND FLORISTS MUM (C. morifolium) Null Hypothesis: There is no significance difference for decrease in mass between Boston fern (N. exaltata) and Florists mum (C. morifolium) Mass Ã ± 0.01g Plants Boston fern (N. exaltata) Florists mum (C. morifolium) Difference between Boston fern and Florists mum
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Merger of Cadburys and Kraft | HR Analysis Cadbury being one of the top lead and almost 200 years old confectionery company having chocolate, gum and candy brands in the portfolio , with a power of making brands like Cadbury, Trident and Halls, that people love. John Cadbury, in 1824 started cocoa and chocolate selling shop in Birmingham. Since then the business kept expanding over time around the world, and today operates in more than 60 countries, with over 35000 direct and indirect suppliers and having more than 45000 employees Cadburys HR department Cadbury operates in more than 60 countries all around the world. Each of the factories has its own HR department that deal with the demand of the workers of the region according to their local situations and demands. Like all other HR departments, it deals with the efficient and effective utilization of resources available. The HR department actively takes care of the following: Recruitment of new staff that must have good skill level or past experience of working at factories of similar kind. Provision of training to new and existing staff so that they are fully equipped with knowledge of any new equipment or procedure brought in and will be able to use it efficiently. Helping the existing workers with problems that they may have at work place. The problems that Cadburys HR department is most likely to face are: Potential employees have in adequate skill or knowledge creating a skill gap. Other factories create competition among staff and creating a deficiency of new staff. Increase in staff turnover in different situation affect production GUEST MODEL: Through statistics and evidences we can easily identify the active management at Cadbury that not only seek betterment of its business but continuously strives for development for the people it holds and for the people that looks forward in joining hands with the company. In this way the Guest model fits in the best with the companys strategies and outcomes. The Cadburys powerful organizational policies can be understood by any good marketer through the managerial decision it takes in the market all over the world. The utmost emphasis on human resource development has helped Cadbury to gain the loyalty of its employees. The employees that are working with the company have created a good will of the company in market such a way that new graduates seek opportunity to work with the company. (Cadbury) The proactive approach of providing equal opportunities to the workers for their development and encouragement packages that the existing employees are enjoying helped to maximum decrease in the turnover and absenteeism percentage. The flexibility employees get during their tenure help them enjoy their work. The organizations communication system is well operated. The management gives a platform to its employees and not only that, they assure the employees that they have a devoted audience that will welcome whatever they place upon that platform. This strategy has helped tremendously that it has not only reduced the grievance level but have also again helped in the reducing the absences. Thus, all the statistics, feedback of employees and consumers and the well known companys market reputation indicates the companys conformance best with the Guest Model. KRAFT: ABOUT KRAFT: A US manufacturer, Kraft, being the second largest food company with approximately $ 50 billions revenue, doing business in more than 160 countries. A company that grew out of cheese whole sale and delivery business started in Chicago in 1903 by James L. Kraft. It later on incorporated as Kraft Bros, Co. in 1909. It acquired Philip Morris Cos in 1988 and later on renamed it as Altira Group Inc., in 2003. THE CULTURE: At Kraft, being open and inclusive a simple concept to follow that has became a part of their core company value in action and that guides their behavior. Being open and inclusive is critical to creating a delicious work experience for our employees and business partners. And its the foundation of our strategy to build a high-performing culture. (Krafts management) Their business style: Two words open and inclusive has become the core code of all the business Kraft do everyday, from training and development programs to the accountability in leadership objectives. THE HR PERSPECTIVE: The Kraft believe in attaining heights through their diverse workforce is one of the modern day technique. Krafts Human resource approach revolves around the same perspective. The management claimed to be providing equal opportunities and rights to different races and color people working at Kraft. At Kraft, following key points are emphasized and are followed religiously: Provision of training for every employee to value the diversity creating a sustainable culture of welcoming differences and values. Their diversity-focused council aligns objectives with the business strategies in order to enhance the impact. HARVARD MODEL: Kraft Foods Company fits in with the Harvard model for HRM. The reviews, feedbacks and statistics indicated that the company emphasis on the company as a whole with respect to its employees. The Kraft management is working with the situations of the worlds market in formulation of policies and making organization wide decision. It works in interest of all the members i.e. stakeholders, of the company. Although the model is weaker than the others and has a fair vulnerability to Unitarianism but it is a much more appropriate model of reference. The decisions the company have made over time had given us the idea that the company works in between constraints and choices that made the company a successful and still growing one. The influence of company itself on the unique contribution within the environmental and organizational parameters not only depicts the management as the real actor but also confirms its conformity with the model. The hr perspective also indicates the active HRM the company has that gives the 4 C outcome that is obvious enough through the employees feedbacks that have been reviewed. In the last the model gives three types of long term consequences i.e. individual based, organization based and societal level. At individual (employee) level, the psychological rewards a worker receives in exchange for efforts. At organizational level, increased effectiveness that ensures the survival and growth of organization. These two levels in turn, enable the societal level as; these two levels make its possible for fully utilization of human resource available and thus, societal goals like employment and growth are easily attained. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: CADBURY: Strategic human resource management aims at the improvement of the way human resources are managed strategically within organizations, with the definitive goal of improving organizational performance, as judged by its impact on the organizations declared corporate strategy, the customer or shareholders. It is a philosophy of people management based on the belief that human resources are uniquely important to sustain the success of a business. It can also be defined as the process of linking the human resource functions with the strategic objectives of the organization in order to improve performance. Strategic human resource management involves the linking of HRM with the strategic goals and objectives of the organization in order to achieve a progressive business performance and achieve an organizational structure that promotes innovation and flexibility. Strategic HRM according to text published in 2004 has emerged as a major approach to improving the competitive advantage of the firm. The strategic management is concerned with policy decisions effecting the entire organization, overall objective being to position the organization to deal effectively with its environment. Strategic HRM aims to provide a sense of direction in an often turbulent environment so that organizational and business needs can be translated into coherent and practical policies and programs. It provides competitive advantage over the others. (Malik, 2009) The goals and objectives of HRM are aligned with the strategic objectives and plans of the organization. The case referred presents a clear picture of an organization that works with clear business objectives i.e. to deliver shareholder performance. The company works with the aim at dividends. The company policy works with the vision that the people it holds are the most important asset that not only works for the company but also integral in achieving the desired goals. Through different papers and journals we saw that the management is managing its human resources in a contingent manner. Thus, we can say that they are following the contingency approach.ÃâÃ Many advocates of the contingency theory of SHRM a company can only be effective if its policies and strategies align with the other key factors and strategies of the firm. According to journal HR must be closely integrated into the planning process of a firm. They also believed that a firm can achieve success if it is able to develop HR policies and practices that complement and support other HR policies and practices and other elements of the organizations strategic plan. (TME) Thus it is evident enough in the case that Cadbury considers its people as a source of competitive advantage and believes that they work as the main contributors to the companys success. The company also seeks and welcomes changes. The goals and objectives are clear and in order to achieve the goals and set objectives it must be aligned with the efforts of its people. The only way to observe such a trend is through Strategic Human Resource. As the company requires active and effective communication with its human resource and it plays the most important role in the companys approach, and in conveying all the policies, plans and strategies so that people at work can synchronize their efforts. The mere fact that Cadbury Schweppes has an HR director on the main board and that HR is represented at every regional business unit make it obvious that the company recognizes the strategic importance of human resources and takes HR issues and concerns seriously. (Cadbury) Cadbury is a resource based company. The company core competencies make it a resource based company. Cadburys unique strategies and policy, the working conditions and the development opportunities it provides to its employees that in turn becomes the key asset or its edge over its competitors. (TME) KRAFT: Kraft unique style of providing training and development opportunities at all level and point of time during an employees tenure makes it a best fit, best practice based company. Through analysis we can see that all the employees from top to bottom have a particular thing to be on that position. The core strategies that are followed at Kraft begin with the aim of building a high-performing organization (Kraft Foods). The provision of best fit entitles an employee for his reward in terms of promotion or training or even other means of rewards and appraisals. It also provides the top management the opportunity of enjoying a decentralized decision making power. The best fit eventually leads to best practice where a good healthy employee who is psychologically satisfied through rewards and encouragements strives to work for better tomorrow. All these practices are observed in Krafts foods operations making it Best Fit, Best Practice based company. LITERATURE REVIEWS: Kraft wins BBC Big Challenge Award for Gloucestershire (Kraft Foods, 2006) Kraft Foods today announced that it has won the BBC Big Challenge Health Works Award for Healthiest Large Employer in the BBC Radio Gloucestershire area. This award is presented to employers who have made health in the workplace one of their top priorities in 2005 and beyond. Kraft won the award for its commitment to creating a working environment that encourages and supports employees in their efforts to lead a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle. Since its launch in July 2004, Krafts employee wellbeing programme has offered advice on living a healthy lifestyle, supported activities that promote wellbeing such as pilates and yoga, provided healthy options in its staff restaurants, and offered all employees the opportunity to obtain periodical health checks through the companys occupational health team. The programme also demonstrates Krafts commitment to being a global leader in Health and Wellness, and its vision to Help people around the world to eat and live better. Christine Harrop, Occupational Health Sister at Kraft Foods won the BBC Big Challenge Unsung Hero Award for Gloucestershire an award presented to employees who have done something to inspire and encourage their colleagues to lead healthier and fitter lives. Christine won the award for her commitment to the health and wellbeing of Kraft employees, and her role over the past 18 years in participating and encouraging Kraft employees to take part in the annual London to Brighton Bike Ride. Christine regularly manages to recruit up to 60 employees to participate in the initiative and has raised thousands of pounds for the events chosen charity, the British Heart Foundation. Commenting on the two awards, Jim Beaty, HR Director stated Its a terrific achievement and recognition for the efforts of all employees who have contributed to the success of the employee wellbeing programme. Kraft Foods Names May to Global Human Resources Post. (Busniess Wire, 2005) NORTHFIELD, Ill. Kraft Foods Inc. (NYSE:KFT), a global leader in branded foods and beverages, announced today that Karen May, 47, is joining the company in October as Executive Vice President, Global Human Resources. May will provide leadership for all of Krafts human resources disciplines, including benefits, compensation, diversity, facilities management, labor and employee relations, human resources strategy, safety and security, and talent management. She will report to Roger Deromedi, Chief Executive Officer of Kraft Foods, and join the Kraft Executive Team. May replaces Terry Faulk, who is retiring after more than 38 years with the company. She will work closely with Faulk to ensure a smooth transition, prior to his retirement at the end of the year. We will truly miss Terrys vast experience and sound judgment, said Deromedi. I want to thank him for his many significant contributions to Kraft throughout his long and distinguished career, and wish him and his family the very best in his retirement. Karens broad range of experiences and thorough understanding of the Human Resources function will serve her well in this role, Deromedi noted. Im confident that shell play a key role in driving Krafts transformation to a more consumer-focused, innovative and nimble company in the years ahead. May joins Kraft from Baxter International, Inc., where she has been Corporate Vice President of Human Resources since 2001. She joined Baxter in 1990 as Director of Corporate Audit and held several positions of increasing responsibility, including Vice President of Corporate Audit and Vice President of International Finance. In 1998, she became Vice President of Global Talent Planning and Staffing at Baxter and, prior to her most recent assignment, was named Vice President of Human Resources in 2000. May began her career in finance, with PricewaterhouseCoopers. She has a BS in accountancy from the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana. Kraft Foods markets many of the worlds leading food brands, including Kraft cheese, Maxwell House and Jacobs coffees, Nabisco cookies and crackers, Philadelphia cream cheese, Oscar Mayer meats, Post cereals and Milka chocolates, in more than 155 countries. CONCLUSION: After all the research it can be concluded being key players of same consumer good category companies, and apart from the merger or acquisition, both the companies have their own unique set of competitive advantage over each other. Challenges in Highway Construction | Research Proposal Challenges in Highway Construction | Research Proposal Dissertation Proposal Challenges in Highway Road Construction in Nigeria. Research Questions: Why is there a high number of highway roads in poor conditions especially in the eastern part of the country? Why is there abandoned highway roads across Nigeria despite huge investments in highway construction? Why this there a poor maintenance culture of roads across the country? Hence, this proposed dissertation would aim to address this gap in knowledge by challenges facing the highway road construction, focusing more on the supervision of highway roads of indigenous construction companies. AIM To review and identify the challenges facing the construction of highway roads in Nigeria and to provide relevant recommendations for minimising these problems. The objectives of this research proposal are: To clearly identify the challenges facing highway construction in Nigeria through literature review. To conduct a questionnaire survey and interview of professional bodies and engineers and obtain their perceptions on highway construction challenges in Nigeria (particularly professionals with 30years and over of experience). Analysis of the survey data. To recommend possible changes in the supervision of highway construction in Nigeria. Background Introduction Nigeria is the largest country in Africa in terms of size and population of 174 million with landmass of 923,768 sq. km with diverse ethnic and cultures. It has 36 states with the Federal capital at Abuja with commercial states at Kano, Lagos, and Port Harcourt representing the northern, southern and eastern parts of the country. The Construction industry contributes about 7% of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) in Nigeria annually and the GDP per capital was about $2,800 in 2013 and is made up of small, medium and large scale companies. It is dominated by foreign companies controlling about 95% of the construction works across the country with top construction companies namely Julius Berger, Dantana Sowoe, Borini Prono, China Civil Engineering Construction Corporation, etc. OVERVIEW OF HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION IN NIGERIA Nigeria has the largest road network in West Africa with a total of over 193,000km length which is generally funded and managed by government. Road transportation is the major means of movement in Nigeria and it accounts for about 90% of movement of goods and services (Akpogomeh, 2002). In terms of scale and value, the transport infrastructure sector is dominated by the roads and bridges which make up about 17.2% of the total construction industry in 2014. However less than 20% of the road network is paved. With the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to development, large investments in highway roads has been awarded across the country and the sector is expected to grow. The road network in the South and eastern part of the country are denser than the other parts owing to the high population densities in the areas (Ubogu et al, 2011). For example, the population in Lagos is about 6 million which was the former capital state and is the commercial and production part of the country and hence the volume of usage of the highway roads to and fro Lagos is quite high. The total highway roads are separately owned with the responsibility for construction, maintenance, and rehabilitation.The Federal roads are about 17%, State owned roads 16%, rural and Local Government Areas (LGAs) about 67%. The funding of the construction of the highway roads comes from the allocation of budget and also revenues from excess crude oil sales. Also, some states generate funds through private partnering which is used in Lagos States. However, only about 27% of Federal roads are reported to be in good condition, of which a major cause is likely to be the instability of the country during the military regime, which later became civilian rule since 1999. Annual loss to the economy is estimated in the region of N175b (N75b due to reduction in asset value; N88b due to increased vehicle operating cost; N12b due to increased turn around and increased travel time). Due to the high cost of construction of highway roads especially in the southern part of the country characterized with poor soils, high cost of labour, the Federal government relies heavily on international aid especially from China and the World Bank. With the World Bank, funding erosion projects across the country worth over $500 million. In October 2012, in the Northern part, Kaduna State approved $176million for 31 rural and township roads, and the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreed a loan of $170million for roads as part of the Nigeria Agriculture Transformation Agenda (NATA), which targets rural development. Also, a 128km road contract in Zamafara state worth $43.47million was awarded in 2013. Over in western part of Nigeria November 2012, in one of the biggest road developments, Ogun state awarded four companies a share of $568million for road contracts. Borini Prono, China Civil Engineering Construction Corporation (CCECC), Hi Tech and PW Construction will complete eight new roads by 2014, with a second phase of construction worth over $250 million. Also, the Lagos-Ibadan Expressway is one of the major road projects under development. The Infrastructure Bank Plc. is to raise NGN117bn for the reconstruction of the 127km road. Over in the Middle part of Nigeria, Delta where the country gets its crude oil from, a road construction contract worth $1.07 billion has been awarded to China Railway Construction in Nigeria. The Ministry of Delta Affairs of Nigeria awarded the package of works for Section V of the A121 East-West highway to China Civil Engineering Construction, a division of China Railway Construction with a 5 years duration to connect the main North-South highways. ITS route runs from the A1 highway at Shagamu in Ogun State to the A2 highway at Benin City in Edo State. More recently, in 2014, the governments of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) of which Nigeria is strong member approved a $50million six dual lane road projects to link Lagos, Abidjan and Dakar together cutting across Benin, Togo and Ghana. Also, the African Development Bank is expected to provide $16million for the construction and rehabilitation of roads across Africa linking the major cities. In general, the present condition of the Nigerian roads require urgent attention, in terms of rehabilitation and had a negative effect on the cost of production, lengthy travel time and standard of living ((Ubogu et al, 2011). For example, travelling from Benin to Lagos normally should take 5hours, but due to the bad road, the journey takes 8hours. Table 1.0 showing highway construction projects, value in US dollars, capacity, contractors and status. Project Name Value(US$) Capacity/length Companies Status Benin-Sagamu Highway 156 9.93km NA Under construction from 2013 Edepie-Tombia road Reconstruction 63 13km Shell Petroleum Development Company Under construction Niger Delta East- West Highway 2,175.69 338km Setraco Limited Under construction from 2013 Akwa Ibom State roads reconstruction 726 266km NA Planning stage Six lane Rig road in Niger Delta Port Harcourt 1,000 125km Africa Finance Corporation, China Harbor Eng. Company Contract awarded in 2008 East-West Road Project 2,276.3 338km Setraco Nigeria Ltd, Reynolds Construction Company Ltd, Gitto Costruzioni General Nigeria Ltd. Under construction since 2012. 51% of work completed. Ibadan-Ilorin highway upgrade 292 52km Shikin Binui Housing and Construction Under construction awarded 2010 and includes new dual carriage with interchanging bridges. Lagos- Ibadan Expressway 1054 127.6km Julius Berger, Reynolds Construction Company Ltd. Awarded 2013. Concession awarded to Bi-Courtney Highway Services ltd and was terminated and granted to Messrs Julius Berger Plc, Reynolds Construction Company. Gbongan Akoda Omoluuabi Motorway widening 185.8 30km RATON construction Nigeria Awarded May 2013 Magami-Dangulbi Dankurmi, Sabon Birni, Bagega Anka road 94.91 128km Bonny Prono Awarded Nov. 2012 Charanchi Ganuwa-Rawayau road 8.18 17km Mothercat Under construction from Oct 2013 Kaduna roads 178.1 NA NA Project Finance Closure(Funding Approved) NA-Not Available Source- Nigeria Infrastructure Report 2014 (BMI key Projects Database) SUPERVISION IN HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION IN NIGERIA In Nigeria, supervision of highway construction is done by consultant engineers and middle level supervisors with few highway field experience, for example in the construction of say 10km rehabilitation in rural areas. A major factor affect supervision of highway projects is low knowledge of highway design and construction, understanding and interpretation of drawings, which is impossible to supervise what ones does not have knowledge of. Some processes in highway construction requires proper supervising such as the road alignment, soil tests, laying of asphalts or macadam as the case maybe. Also, the supervision should involve checking of quality of the material used for construction such as sand, laterite in accordance with the specifications in the highway drawings. In the awarding of highway roads contracts, the construction and supervision are awarded separately with competitive biddings. For example, Julius Berger, a foreign based company which specializes in highway construction which major works in Abuja city capital. The major issue is that for some construction works supervision contracts are awarded based on connection instead of actual knowledge of the supervision and hence there are no checks. But in general, most of the construction of highway roads by the foreign companies have stood the test of time. The case is not the same for home based construction companies who have limited resources and technical knowledge are awarded huge highway road contracts, with home based consultants supervising. Another issue is that the bill of the consultants supervising the construction is often times added to the entire contract and hence responsibility rests in the hands of the contractors and hence the consultants are often times forced to cut corners and save costs such as not putting a resident engineer to supervise daily and give reports. LOW KNOWLEDGE BASE. A major problem facing the highway construction is the lack of knowledge passage from the old and experienced engineers to the young, inexperienced engineers. Often times, due to the lack of availability of supervision works, most consulting firms do not employ and train engineers, engaging them in design and interpretation of drawings on site. Often times, when consulting firms get work, they employ contract based engineers to supervision leaving a huge gap of knowledge passage to the younger engineers and hence in Nigeria, most graduate Engineers have little or no construction experience. Also there is a lack of modern method of road construction especially the home based construction companies and hence many highway projects, such as highways and bridges, do not meet cost and time performance requirements. There is a poor maintenance culture of highway roads across the country and with the huge investments in highway construction, the average Nigerian lacks maintenance culture. In some cities across the country, some of the highways are constructed without the side drains and in some other cases only one side of the drains are constructed, which later causes failure of the roads. Also, litters can be seen in some of the highway roads especially in the eastern and western parts of the country which is a very serious issue which should be addressed. In the rural areas, most of the side drains are completely blocked especially in the eastern part which is prone to erosions. Another major issue within the highway construction in Nigeria is the failure of the Federal Government in paying contractors. For example, in the reconstruction of the 125km Lagos-Ibadan Expressway which was re-awarded to Julius Berger and R.C.C in which the construction is due to start due lack of payment by the government which is one of the reasons for abandoned highway projects across the country. Nigeria still uses the traditional contracting approach in which procurement is done through advertisement and bid processes has failed in performance in both the quality of construction and the management of the highways, in many developed countries adopting performance-based contract in road construction and maintenance. The Federal Ministry of Works which has branches across the 36 states with head office in Abuja the capital is responsible for all the federal highways construction which involves planning, design, construction, and rehabilitation. It is responsible for awarding for major highway contracts across the country. It also supervises and monitors construction and maintenance of the federal roads. In terms of quality, the choice of materials used, methodology and supervision are key in improving the quality and life span roads. In this regard, (Arumala 1987; and Akpododje 1986) investigated how the design standards, poor supervision and the failure of highways and found little or no evidence supporting it. Also, studies on road failure caused by use of sub-standard materials and knowledge on the geotechnical properties of the soils in which the roads are built (Ibrahim 1980; and Ola 1978). For example, the cost of road construction in the south and eastern part of the country is higher than that in the northern part mainly on the bad conditions of the soil, high cost of labour and availability of construction materials. The British code of Highway practice (BS codes) are still used in Nigeria for both in highway construction and buildings as it was a former colony of the Britain and currently a member of the Common Wealth. The Federal ministry also supervises the activities of the Federal Roads Maintenance Agency (FERMA) which is responsible for carryout maintenance works on the federal and state highways across the country. Research Method My proposed research method would be a qualitative research (questionnaire and interview survey). Interview survey for consultant engineers who have over 30 yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ experience in highway construction and questionnaire survey for contractors in highway construction in Nigeria. The reason being that the research requires an in depth perspective and in terms of numbers there are few engineers with over 30 yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ experience I can meet. The structure of the interview would be semi structured to allow for flexibility for 3 consultant engineers home based medium scale firms. Possible Problems Potential Solutions Possible limitations to my proposed study is the firstly the time management and a timetable has been drafted as shown below. Also the responsiveness of the interview survey could be challenging finding professional engineers and consultants with over 30 yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ experience. The research limited to home based construction companies and professionals. Conclusion Hopefully, at the end of research work, solutions could be recommended in the highway construction industry in Nigeria especially in the supervision area which would help in future planning of projects. References Alaba Adetola, et.al (2011) A critical appraisal of road transport infrastructure management in Nigeria International council for research and innovation CIB, pp.77-95. Abdulkareem, Y. and Adeoti, K. (2003), Road maintenance and National Development available at unilorin.edu.ng Adams, O. (1995) Indigenous ContractorsÃ¢â¬â¢ Perceptions of the constraints on Contractors Performance and Development Programmes required in Nigeria. Habitat International, 19(4), pp.599-613. Adetola, A. (2011) A critical appraisal of road transport infrastructure management in Nigeria. International council for research and innovation CIB, pp.77-95. Aibinu, A. and Jagboro, G. (2002) The effects of Construction Industry, international Journal of Project Management. 20(8), pp.593-599. Nigerian Infrastructure report, 2013; 2014. (2014). A.E Okezie (2013) A case for Performance based road maintenance in Nigeria available at www.nseph.org Odeh, A. and Battaineh, H. (2002) Causes of construction delays: traditional contracts. International Journals of Project Management, 20, pp.67-73. Okigbo, N. (2012) Causes of Highway failures in Nigeria. International Journal for Engineering Science and Technology, 4(11).
Textual Analysis The Hounds of Tindalos Ã Ã Ã Ã The Hounds of Tindalos is a short science fiction story containing many and varied elements that have been long associated with the genre of science fiction. This essay will identify these elements, examining their placement within this short text and also the interchange of these elements with the characteristics of other genres, more specifically, horror. Belknap Long, the author, was clearly intent of incorporating the elements of horror within the genre of science fiction and this amalgamation of these two genres was a popular combination employed by future horror and SF writers. Perhaps the inclusion of horror within the SF genre is a comment in itself about perceptions of SF held by writers, the elements of horror being a cautionary warning to those in the science world. LongÃ¢â¬â¢s main character is Halpin Chalmers, a self proclaimed Ã¢â¬Å"rebel and champion of originality and lost causesÃ¢â¬ . From the start it is clear there are present within this text some elements of the SF genre that seem to be in just about every SF story, beginning with the main character. Many writers have as their main characters people who are non-conformists, who wish to boldly go where no one has gone before and who are willing to take seemingly illogical and irrational risks in the hope of furthering makindsÃ¢â¬â¢ scientific discoveries. Chalmers is no exception in this as he willingly partakes in an ancient Chinese drug that is a known powerful hallucinogen in a bid to go back in time. There is of course the proverbial Ã¢â¬Å"wet blanketÃ¢â¬ in the shape of the narrator, known only as Frank, who believes his friend Chalmers to be quite mad, but who never-the-less agrees to aid his friend in his bizarre experiment despite the risks he is taking. Frank represe nts all those characters in SF stories who are the skeptics, the non believers, who have a solid faith in the science of the present, and who consider characters like Chalmers to be eccentric and bizarre. Ã Ã The setting of The Hounds of Tindalos is in the late 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s and the location is Central Square. ChalmerÃ¢â¬â¢s apartment room is where most of the story takes place. The room is in keeping with ChalmerÃ¢â¬â¢s character as a rejector of modern science and one who is still entranced with the historical side of science and history preferring Ã¢â¬Å"illuminated manuscripts to automobiles and leering stone gargoyles to radios and adding machinesÃ¢â¬ .
Friday, July 19, 2019
Running From Reality in Huckleberry FinnÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã In Mark Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, a main target of satire is the romantic view of life. Though the characters and symbols, it is evident that the idyllic views are being disparaged. Some of the people in this book are simply deluded, while others cause major tribulations during their lives. Literary romanticism can be pleasant, but it is not real and can confuse those not sage enough to distinguish the difference between a writer's fantasy and their reality. For a person who sees the delusions that humans allow themselves, this can be aggravating. The annoyance caused is not the problem, however. It is the harm caused. The romantic problems brought to light in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn show how desperate mankind is to escape from its problems rather than face their reality. Ã The sinking of the steamboat Walter Scott is symbolic of Twain's dislike for Ivanhoe and its author. In the adventure book, the characters live through a near revolution and even receive a happy ending. Realistically, unless the force was greater, a small group of men would have little chance against an army in a castle. Also, in history, love does not always exist between the heroine and the hero. The events described could happen, but the people are not real. Their actions do not always fit those of someone from their background. A believable character would be like Pap, who stays in character until he is found dead. The reader can tell that when Pap signs the temperance pledge, he will not keep it. He is humorous to those that see how ignorant he is, chasing his own son for being "the Angel of Death". As for the characters in such a book as Ivanhoe, their actions only... ...further their existence any. Substituting a fantasy for the truth of one's situation cannot help ameliorate the impediments of life. Ã Works Cited Pritchett, V. S. Ã Adventures of Huckleberry Finn:Ã An Annotated Text, Background and Sources, Essays in Criticism.Ã Eds.Ã Sculley Bradley, Richmond Croom Beatty, and E. Hudson Long.Ã New York:Ã Norton, 1961. Pearce, Roy Harvey.Ã Ã "Yours Truly, Huck Finn."Ã Ã One Hundred Years of Huckleberry Finn.Ã Ed. Robert Sattlemeyer and J. Donald Crowley.Ã Baltimore:Ã The John Hopkins University Press, 1985.Ã Rpt. in Mark Twain.Ã Modern Critical Views.Ã Ed. Harold Bloom.Ã New York:Ã Chelsea House Publishers, 1986.Ã 159-82. Railton, Stephen.Ã "Jim and Mark Twain:Ã What Do Dey Stan' For?"Ã Virginia Quarterly Review 63.3 (Summer 1987):Ã 393-408. Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. New York: Bantam, 1994
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Andrew Ike B. Waga ENG 106 Dec. 14, 2011 2010-53632 Trubetzkoy, Jakobson or Chomsky, Whose Distinctive Features are truly Ã¢â¬Å"DistinctÃ¢â¬ ? Ã¢â¬Å"Teacher, teacher, Help me, I have just been side swiped by a car! Ã¢â¬ These were the exact words that came out from the mouth of the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s resident hooligan, Kevin, one afternoon after class.During those times, our school has been intensively campaigning for every student to speak English at least while on campus, in preparation for the coming PAASCU (Philippine Accrediting Association of Schools, Colleges) visit, we were so prepped up that we were even speaking in English outside school Ã¢â¬Å"just in case the Assessors are just loitering around, observingÃ¢â¬ our teachers would say.So one afternoon, after finding not much to do, Kevin, decided he wanted to show his antics to us, saying that he is planning to pull off a prank on our schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s English Coordinator, and our class adviser as well, we had a carefu lly laid out plan, he would be rushing from the street towards our school gate while we convince our teacher to approach the gate as well, and then he shouted, the exact words on quotation, except that he pronounced swiped as /s? ?pd/. Our teacher, knowing KevinÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation, was already sensing that she was a bait to a good laugh, calmly yet in an authoritarian manner said, Ã¢â¬Å"side swipe! s? aIp/ Next time, Kevin, try pronouncing the words well, so as not to lose your momentum, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s always a next time! Ã¢â¬ with her signature smirk. I remembered this incident while reading about Natural classes, I am very sure that my teacher knew what Kevin meant, since all of us thought that KevinÃ¢â¬â¢s pronunciation of that word was correct as far as we were concerned, until the jokes went back to Kevin. Growing up in a city that speaks Cebuano, it is inevitable for some English words to get that Ã¢â¬Å"bisayaÃ¢â¬ flavour, like the occasional /p/ becomes an /f/ or t he letter h is pronounced as /? ? / and many more, but nevertheless, besides deviating from what we know as a Ã¢â¬Å"standardÃ¢â¬ for American English, we pretty much understood each other despite the glitches. And so I thought, why was it necessary to dwell on the distinctive features of sounds when the main importance has been served, comprehension. But then, I had to understand that it is necessary so that I would know just how these sounds are related to be viewed as almost interchangeable, just how Ã¢â¬Å"similarÃ¢â¬ was similar? Hence, we go to the distinctive features of sounds.In dealing with Distinctive features, I focused first on the work of Trubetzkoy, most people would start with Jakobson before Trubetzkoy but I saw that it was Trubetzkoy who first saw Phonetics and Phonology as separate disciplines. He mentioned that form (contrast, system patterning) must be studied separately from substance (acoustics, articulation). Hence, there was a greater concentration on sounds first before they are seen as words. It was Trubetzkoy who introduced the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"oppositionsÃ¢â¬ in Phonology which he mentioned in his primary work, GrundzUge der phonologieÃ (1939).Oppositions would refer to a pair or set of sounds sharing the same feature that is not shared with any other sounds. Here are some of TrubetzkoyÃ¢â¬â¢s Oppositions: a) Bilateral oppositions A bilateral opposition refers to a pair sounds that share a set of features which no other sound shares fully. For example, voiceless labial obstruents =Ã /p,f/. Note that obstruents are defined as having a degree of stricture greater than that of approximants (that is, stops and fricatives). b) Multilateral oppositions A group of more than 2 sounds which share common features.For example, labial obstruents,/p,b,f,v/, are both labial and obstruents, so they share two features. c) Privative (Binary) Oppositions One member of a pair of sounds possesses a mark, or feature, which the other lacks. Such features are also known asÃ binaryÃ features which a sound either possesses or lacks. Voicing is such a feature. A sound is voiced or NOT voiced. The sound which possesses that feature is said to beÃ markedÃ (egÃ [+voice]) whilst the sound lacking the feature isÃ unmarkedÃ (eg. [-voice]). d) Gradual Oppositions The members of a class of sounds possess different degrees or gradations of a feature or property.For example, the three short front unrounded vowels in EnglishÃ /? ,Ã e,Ã ? /Ã which are distinguished only by their height. In this system height would be a single feature with two or more degrees of height. As of present times, when Chomsky and HalleÃ¢â¬â¢s set of Distinctive features are accessible to us, this would seem very broad and general, hence, not really dwelling into more specific details. But this jumpstarted the notion that sounds share similar qualities and it is crucial for the development of his friend, JakobsonÃ¢â¬â¢s own Distinct ive Feature Theory.Jakobson is known as the first one to formalize the Distinctive Feature Theory. He followed the findings of Trubetzkoy as one of his basis for building up his set of distinctive features. JakobsonÃ¢â¬â¢s original formulation of the Distinctive Feature Theory aside from Trubetzkoy was based on the ff. Ideas: (1) All features are BINARY. Sounds are either [+voice] or [-voice] (2) A small set of features is able to differentiate between the phonemes of any single language. (3) Distinctive features may be defined in terms of articulatory or acoustic features.Here is a table showing JakobsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Distinctive Features: Though, the advantage of JakobsonÃ¢â¬â¢s set is that it also has an acoustic description, I do think that the articulatory description is sufficient enough, since after articulating the sound we hear the sound we produced ourselves and yet not at all times would people share the same acoustic descriptions to their produced sound, because we all ha ve our own ways of pronouncing sounds, hence, I think that the acoustic description should be left for the speaker to describe and not defined by JakobsonÃ¢â¬â¢s description.JakobsonÃ¢â¬â¢s idea was a good starting point for Chomsky and HalleÃ¢â¬â¢s own set of distinctive features. With JakobsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Distinctive features serving as a terminus a quo for Chomsky and Halle, they were able to refine JakobsonÃ¢â¬â¢s set of features. A great achievement done by this duo is that they were able to establish the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"Natural ClassesÃ¢â¬ . The aim is to carefully choose distinctive features to form a natural class of phonemes. An advantage of this approach is seen in writing Phonological rules hence, we get to understand why we can still comprehend to some words though they are mispronounced.Another is that if we are to choose the features well, it should be possible to refer to natural classes of phonemes with a smaller number of features, therefore allowing a more re fined set of characteristics to describe the phonemes involved in a natural class. Chomsky and Halle also introduced the feature classifications such as the major class features, the manner features and the place features thus paving the way for a more organized description in giving characteristics of phonemes.Chomsky and Halle was able to answer the concerns of redundancy when giving features, which is found in Generative Phonology, a component of generative grammar that assigns the correct phonetic representations toÃ utterancesÃ in such a way as to reflect a native speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s internalized grammar. Given the current situation, I would have to choose Chomsky and HalleÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory of Distinctive Features as the most functional, because it is able to give more specific descriptions as compared to Trubetzkoy and Jakobson.Since we have established that Chomsky and HalleÃ¢â¬â¢s set gives the most detailed, comprehensive and most organized distinctive features, it would be best to follow their findings. But It is also important to note that without the ideas of Trubetzkoy and Jakobson in the Distinctive Feature theory, Chomsky and HalleÃ¢â¬â¢s own theory would not be as it is today, not able to answer loopholes and deficiencies found in the previous studies. So for me, it is like a ladder, one has to go through the intial steps first before reaching your destination, because as what my teacher would have said, Ã¢â¬Å"so as not to lose your momentum. Ã¢â¬ Bibliography
The text states that the genius paradox in dramatic play has visibly endured is kn testify as bother maneuver. political relation officials consent long demanded a dissolving agent from manoeuvre operators to address this major rationalise. alike(p)wise many issues go along with problem manoeuvre such as crime, family and determine problems, and financial damage. Fortunately, the gaming industry as a whole has sought to be proactive in combatting the issue. They fe ared being viewed in the identical light as the tobacco plant or firearm industry by ignoring major problems with their products.Are the move that they larn over taken generous, or is maneuver in familiar a major terror to society that should be avoided? The Ameri after part psychiatric Association refers to problem period of play as pathological gambling. There are largely speaking two different types of problem gamblers action problem gamblers and escape problem gamblers. Gambling dependency is j ust as valid of an illness as addiction to inebriant or drugs. Its prevalence is cogitate directly to the ease of access of gambling in our society. However, just like drugs and alcohol, save a dwarfish lot of the universe is prone to this illness.Gambling addicts in general either lose all of their money, bundle up massive debt, file for bankruptcy, and in the thrash cases commit suicide be dumbfound they are hopeless. What steps has the gaming industry taken to embarrass these horrible outcomes? I spoke to my long-time trembler Alan Erskine, who now computes as the humans Affairs Coordinator at the Ameri plenty turn Association in Washington D. C. I needed to set out if they were victorious appropriate precautions to prevent these people from self-destruction.He assured me that, The gaming industry has do many contributions to directing problem gambling. The commencement ceremony is the creation of the national Center for creditworthy Gaming, which is the largest funder of scholarly studies on how to best curb addiction. The industry also makes various efforts to nurture customers closely possible negative effectuate of gambling. This includes posting signs around the casino floor, advert the problem gambling hotline and ensuring customers are not intoxicated while gambling. I was prosperous to hear that they were this proactive, but is it enough? The National Center for Responsible Gaming is the only national organization exclusively addicted to funding research to enhance the intelligence of pathological gambling. They also search to experience trenchant methods of airinessment for the dis value and work to improve prevention, diagnostics, intervention and educating the public about responsible gaming. However, if gambling is the root of the issue to begin with, is it worth expanding gaming in our society?Is educating people really enough to curb the issue? There are countless organizations to prevent drug and alcohol addiction , but the problem still persists. virtually(a) critics of legalized gambling would argue that it is the direct cause of the increase in problem gambling and that any of their efforts are just thermolabile in order to protect their own interests. Alan Erskine responded to this claim stating, The industry recognizes that a small segment of the creation cannot gamble safely. Studies have shown that about one percent of the state cannot gamble safely. His response does hold water. The amiable disorder of pathological gambling does walk out only a small circumstances of the population. Should the rest of society be qualified just because there are nearly who cant gamble responsibly? The same case could be do for alcohol. Only a small percentage of people are alcoholics. The rest of the population should not be prohibited to confound just because a select few cannot handle it responsibly. All the industry can do is provide payoffs for people to stick around help, and educate t he public on the dangers of its abuse.The NCRG has yielded genuinely helpful results in order to infer the nature of the psychological disorder. These include statistics on the s glome of people affected, much effective overcompensatement options, the role of genetics, and new instruments to measure, quiz and diagnose pathological gambling. The more we clear about how this pathological disorder works, the more we can do to diagnose and treat it before the victim gets themselves and others into serious trouble. In conclusion, it is a bit of a cop out to simply blame the gaming industry for the rise in gambling addiction.They have been extremely proactive in trying to curb the issue and ask it to public eye. Even though they didnt want to be viewed in the same light as other industries like tobacco, alcohol and firearms, it seems inevitable that they would be separate together. They all provide goods and services that some can enjoy responsibly and others give way addicted to and harm themselves or others. look for has consistently pointed out that addiction to gambling produces the same reactions in the brain that you would find from drug and alcohol addiction.However, they should be distinguish from these industries in the fact that they have donated a great deal of time and resources in order to find ways to diagnose, prevent, and treat this pathological disorder. While the acceptance of gambling in society does allow an outlet for those who can become addicted, the vast legal age of people have proven they can do responsibly and the industry continues to take significant steps in order help those who suffer from gambling addiction.